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26 july 2015 FOGHORN safety Security MATTERS Feb 1 2012 Run as is the safety of passenger vessels. These recommendations included Establishing a board of competent naval architects within the Department of Commerce respon- sible for the review and approval of construction plans and stability calculations for steam merchant vessels greater than 100 gross tons. In addition no vessel would receive a license for service Certificate of Inspection until the plans were approved and the vessels safety seaworthiness and stability were demonstrated to the satisfaction of the board Requiring any alterations to a vessel subsequent to construction be approved the board of naval ar- chitects Increases of passenger capacities be approved by the Supervising Inspector of the District where the vessel operates and Provide for the appeal of the findings decisions of the local Board of Inspectors. Pending enactment of these rec- ommendations into law by Congress the Board of Inquiry recommended that no passenger capacity increases be granted until a personal inspec- tion of the vessel was conducted and a written record of the inspec- tion completed. Another provisional recommendation was that passenger vessel owners be required to conduct inclining tests under the supervision of a naval architect if there was any reason to question the stability of their vessel. Within two weeks of the Eastland disaster the city of Chicago actually mandated stability tests for big Great Lakes passenger steamers. The first test was conducted on the whaleback steamer Christopher Columbus on August 5 1915 in what the New York Times quoted as an unusual inclining test in an effort to tip it over. The test supervised by U. S. Naval Constructor consisted of loading 7500 sand bags weighing 100 pounds each onto the top decks of the vessel. The bags were then transferred to one side of the vessel. The moment created by the shifting weight resulted in a heel angle of 12 degrees which was considered a success by the experts on board the vessel. As a modern frame of reference Coast Guard requirements call for an angle of heel no more than 14 degrees when conducting a simplified stability test. A Lasting Regulatory Legacy The first of the recommendations to become law concerned the determi- nation of passenger capacity on steam passenger vessels. TheAct of February 14 1917 required more supervision over the work of local inspectors and